Posts tagged testament

Free Resource Friday

The SBL Greek New Testament is another great Free book to add to your study library!

The SBL Greek New Testament differs from the standard text in more than 540 variation units. The existence of an alternative critically edited text will help to remind readers of the Greek New Testament that the text-critical task is not finished. Moreover, by reminding readers of the continuing need to pay attention to the variant readings preserved in the textual tradition, it may also serve to draw attention to a fuller understanding of the goal of New Testament textual criticism: both identifying the earliest text and also studying all the variant readings for the light they shed on how particular individuals and faith communities adopted, used, and sometimes altered the texts that they read, studied, and transmitted.


Find this title in the in-app store of the Bible Study App or go here for download instructions.


You can also go HERE to check out other Hebrew and Greek resources for use within The Bible Study App.

The New Mounce Parsings and the NA28

By Olive Tree Staff: Matthew Jonas

Some of you may have noticed that the parsed version of the NA28 text that Olive Tree is now offering uses a different parsing database than the parsed NA27 text that we offer.  The parsing database that Olive Tree offers with the NA27 is the Mounce-Koivisto parsing database.  It is based on the work of both Dr. William Mounce and Dr. Rex Koivisto.  The new parsing system is based entirely on the work of Dr. Mounce.

Both systems provide the sort of basic parsing information that students and pastors would typically expect:  tense, voice, mood, person, and number for verbs; case, number, and gender for nouns, and so forth.  The Mounce-Koivisto also includes some additional data at times that the new system does not contain, such as types for pronouns (demonstrative, personal, etc.) and syntactical information about the uses of conjunctions (coordinating vs. subordinating, temporal, causal, etc.)  However, since the new Mounce system is simpler, it is also more straightforward and easier to understand in some cases.

If the basic parsing data is very similar between the two systems, you may wonder what the advantage of the new one is.  The answer has to do not so much with the parsings themselves as it does with the accompanying set of glosses.  The parsings that Olive Tree has made available with the NA28 contain much fuller glosses than the parsings that are offered with the NA27.  The glosses are an important distinctive feature of the Mounce-Koivisto parsings as compared to AGNT, which uses an excellent parsing system, but has no glosses.  The addition of fuller and more accurate glosses in the new Mounce parsings make this even more of an advantage.

For example, the difference between the older glosses and the newer glosses is very apparent when looking at a preposition such as ἐν.  The Mounce-Koivisto (NA27) gloss is “(+dat) in, with, by, to.”  The Mounce (NA28) gloss is “Spatially: in, inside, at, among, with; logically: by means of, with, because of; of time: during, while.”  Not every gloss is as long as this, but fuller and more accurate glosses are given for certain words such as in this example.

My experience has been that once a student has learned the basic forms of nouns and verbs that the main barrier to reading the New Testament is unfamiliar vocabulary rather than unfamiliar forms.  The fuller set of glosses that are part of the new Mounce parsing system will hopefully make it easier to bridge the gap between the shorter glosses that students learn when starting out and the fuller definitions found in lexicons.  These coupled with Dr. Mounce’s straightforward parsing system and the text of the NA28 make this a valuable resource for anyone interested in the Greek New Testament.

What’s New in the NA28?

By Olive Tree Staff: Matthew Jonas

I have to admit that when I heard that a new edition of the Novum Testamentum Graece was being published, it wasn’t a big deal for me.  I liked the NA27 just fine and while realized that the NA28 would reflect the latest advances in New Testament textual criticism, I wasn’t sure how important it was to me to be on the cutting edge of textual criticism.  Before working for Olive Tree, I was an educator and taught classes mainly on Greek and Latin.  I used the NA27 in my classes, and we did consult the textual apparatus from time to time.  Since the main text was the focus in my classes, I might not need the most recent edition if the changes were limited to the apparatus.  When I finally had a chance to look through the NA28 though, my attitude changed.

First of all, there are changes to the main text in the NA28  (unlike the NA27, which reprints the same main text used in the NA26).  Most of these changes are orthographic, but there are a dozen or so changes in the Catholic Epistles that affect the meaning of the passage.  These changes are limited to the Catholic Epistles currently, but  my understanding is that the editors of the NA28 plan on releasing further revisions to other sections of the New Testament in the future.

While the changes to the main text are significant, the most substantial differences between the NA28 and the NA27 are in the apparatus.  The entire apparatus has been revised, but the sections covering the Catholic Epistles also have some additional changes that have not yet been applied to the other sections.  The overall purpose of the apparatus has changed in the NA28.  In some ways it reminds me a little more of the apparatus included with the UBS4.  It serves as an introduction to the sources rather than just a collection of variants.  This distinction may seem a little vague, but the resulting apparatus is clearer and easier to use than the previous one.

Beyond the general shift in philosophy, here are some more specific changes that were made to the apparatus:

  • The distinction between consistently cited witnesses of the first order and of the second order has been eliminated.  Now there are just consistently cited witnesses.
  • The use of sed and et to combine variants has been eliminated.
  • “Archaic Mark” (i.e. ms 2427) is no longer cited since it has been proven to be a forgery.
  • Conjectural readings have been completely eliminated.
  • Citations of the various versions and the Church Fathers have all been “double-checked”
  • The apparatus for the Catholic Epistles uses “Byz” instead of a Fraktur letter M to represent the Byzantine tradition.
  • Readings from the newly discovered Papyri  117-121 are included.

The net result of all of these changes is a fresh and exciting new edition of the Greek New Testament.  This is the first edition of the Nestle-Aland text that was not edited by Kurt Aland, and the new editor, Holger Strutwolf, made some compelling changes in this edition.

To get the NA28 for The Bible Study App click HERE. Please note you can also get the NA28 bundled with the critical apparatus, Mounce parsings, or both.

For more information on the NA28, check out the following links:


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